The 13th Dynasty starts with the death of Nefrusobek, the last member of the royal family of the 12th Dynasty, who ruled Egypt. The two first kings of the new dynasty were sons of Amenemhat IV, who, although he was not of royal birth, ruled between Amenemhat III and Nefrusobek.

According to the Turin Kinglist, Nefrusobek's successor was named Wegaf. A comparison of material and sources, however, has led researchers to believe that the Turin Kinglist may have been wrong at this point. Seal impressions bearing Wegaf's name appear to belong more to the middle of the dynasty rather than its beginning. Similarly, Sebekhotep Sekhemre Khutawi, whom the Turin Kinglist places in the middle of the 13th Dynasty, appears to belong to the start of the dynasty. The fact that Sebekhotep and Wegaf had very similar prenomens, may have led to the two of them being mixed up in the kinglist.

Placing Sebekhotep Sekhemre Khutawi at the start of the dynasty, makes him the first king with the name Sebekhotep.

There are indications that already during the reign of Amenemhat IV, a local ruler in the Nile Delta of foreign origin became more and more powerful. It is during this reign that the frequent expeditions to the Sinai came to a stop, probably because the expeditions had to go via the Nile Delta. At the latest during the reign of Nefrusobek, this ruler was able to found his own dynasty, the 14th, which, ruling from the city of Avaris, controlled at least the eastern Nile Delta, and perhaps all of Lower Egypt.

Nefrusobek's successors of the 13th Dynasty thus only ruled over the Nile Valley, stretching from Memphis to Elephantine. The initial contacts between both rivalling houses may have been of a military nature, as the miltary burials of this period in Avaris seem to indicate. After these initial hostilities, a status quo appears to have been agreed and both houses coexisted peacefully, allowing each other access to their territories for trade.

The kings of this dynasty followed each other in rapid succession, hinting at a lack of stability of the central government which may have been caused by internal power struggles.

Very contrary to tradition that kingship was passed from father onto son, Sebekhotep III and several of his successors publically proclaimed being of non-royal birth, as if wanting to make a clear distinction between themselves and their predecessors. This too hints at the central government being plagued by power struggles.

There are also indications that towards the end of the 13th and 14th Dynasties, the fertile Nile Delta was ravaged by decades of famine. With more than 50% of the foodproduction of Ancient Egypt coming from this region, it is very likely that Upper Egypt, the realm of the 13th Dynasty, suffered as much.

Weakened by internal power struggles, famine and plagues that unvariably accompanied longer periods of famine, the last kings of the 13th Dynasty were no match for a group of foreign invaders known as the Hyksos. Coming from Asia, the Hyksos had first overthrown the equally weak rulers of the 14th Dynasty and then pushed on further south, bringing the 13th Dynasty to an end.

The table below shows the list of kings of the 14th Dynasty:

  Name Manetho Highest Year Dates (*)
  Sebekhotep I     1783 - 1780
  Senebef     1780 - 1777
  Nerikare     1776
  Amenemhat V     1776 - 1773
  Qemaw     1773 - 1771
  Hetepibre     1771 - 1768
  Iufeni     1768
  Amenemhat VI     1768 - 1765
  Semenkare     1765 - 1763
  Sehetepibre II     1763 - 1761
  Sewadjkare     1761
  Nedjemibre     1760
  Sebekhotep II     1760 - 1757
  Reniseneb     1757
Click to learn more about Hor I Hor I     1757 - 1755
  Sekhemre Khutawi     1755 - 1752
  ///kare     1752 - 1750
  Seb     1750
  Kay     1750 - 1749
  Amenemhat VII     1749 - 1746
  Wegaf     1746 - 1744
  Khendjer     1744 - 1739
  Imira-mesha      
  Antef IV      
  Seth I      
Click to learn more about Sebekhotep III Sebekhotep III     1729 - 1722
Click to learn more about Neferhotep I Neferhotep I     1722 - 1711
  Sihathor     1713
  Sebekhotep IV     1712 - 1700
  Sebekhotep V     1700 - 1697
Click to learn more about Sebekhotep VI Sebekhotep VI     1697 - 1692
  Ia-ib     1692 - 1681
  Ay     1681 - 1657
  Ini     1657 - 1655
  Sewadjtu     1655 - 1652
  Ined     1652 - 1649
  Hori     1649 - 1644
  Sebekhotep VII     1644 - 1643
several kings, names lost
  Mer///re      
  Merkheperre      
  Merkare      
  Mentuhotep V      
  ///mesre      
  Ibi II      
  Hor II      
  Se///kare      
  Seankhptahi      
  ///re      
  Se///enre      
         
The following kings also belonged to the 13th Dynasty, but cannot be placed with certainty:
         
  Sekhaenre      
  Senebmiu      

(*) Note that all dates are approximations only and that even the length of each king's tenure of power is subject to debate.

  Middle Kingdom   Ka Statue of Hor   Manetho
  12th Dynasty   Dashur   Turin Kinglist
  2nd Intermediate Period   Saqqara    
  13th Dynasty        
  14th Dynasty        
           


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