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Mentuhotep II changed his titulary several times during his long reign. These changes often reflect different stages in his reign. It would take until after the unification of Egypt before Mentuhotep II would use the complete titulary.

1. Before the war against the Heracleopolitan Dynasty

In the earliest stage of Mentuhotep's reign, his titulary only consisted of a Horus-name and a nomen. The presence and contents of the Horus-name indicate the desire to unite Egypt under Theban rule. The nomen is not written within a cartouche.

Horus-name

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_h1.gif (489 bytes)

Hr sanx ib tA.wj

Horus, who feeds the heart of the Two Lands

or: Horus, who allows the heart of the Two Lands to live.

Nomen

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_e1.gif (621 bytes)

sA ra mnTw-Htpw

The son of Re, Mentuhotep ("Montu is satisfied").

2. After the defeat of the Heracleopolitan Dynasty

The titulary is more complete. Only the so-called Golden name is missing. As was the case during the early Old Kingdom, Mentuhotep's Nebti-name is similar to his Horus-name. Particularly interesting is the affiliation with Hathor, instead of Re, in his nomen.

Horus-name

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_h2.gif (439 bytes)

Hr nTr HD.t

Horus, the god of the White Crown.

This title shows that Mentuhotep could claim rulership over Upper-Egypt, as symbolised by the White Crown.

Nebti-name

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_n1.gif (377 bytes)

nb.tj nTr HD.t

The Two Ladies, the god of the White Crown

 

or: 1104_mentuhotep_ii_n2.gif (404 bytes)

nb.tj aA ///

The Two Ladies, great in ///

Prenomen

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_p1.gif (249 bytes)

nb Hp.t ra

Nebhepetre ("Lord of the rudder is Re")

Combined Prenomen and Nomen

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_pe.gif (501 bytes)

nb Hp.t ra, sA ra, mnTw-Htp

Nebhepetre, the son of Re, Mentuhotep.

Nomen

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_e2.gif (524 bytes)

sA ra, mnTw-Htp

The son of Re, Mentuhotep.

 

or: 1104_mentuhotep_ii_e3.gif (564 bytes)

sA Hw.t-Hr nb(.t) iwn.t, mnTw-Htp

The son of Hathor, the lady of Dendara, Mentuhotep.

Note the similarity of this name, with one of the names used by Pepi I.

3. After the unification of the Two Lands

After the unification of the Two Lands, the titulary is completed with the Golden name. There are two versions of the Golden name: a simple one, as was also the case during the early Old Kingdom, and a more elaborate one. Again the Nebti-name is practically the same as the Horus-name. Mentuhotep appears to have paid special attention to the early Old Kingdom royal titularies when creating his own.

Horus-name

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_h3.gif (426 bytes)

Hr smA tA.wj

Horus, who has united the Two Lands.

Nebti-name

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_n3.gif (369 bytes)

nb.tj smA tA.wj

The Two Ladies, the one who has united the Two Lands.

Golden name

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_g1.gif (229 bytes) 

 

var.  1104_mentuhotep_ii_g2.gif (320 bytes)

bik nbw, qa Sw.tj

The Golden Falcon, high of plumes.

The plumes refer to a plumed crown

 

or : 1104_mentuhotep_ii_g3.gif (171 bytes)

bik nbw

The Golden Falcon.

Prenomen

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_p2.gif (278 bytes)

nb Hpt ra

Nebhepetre.

Note the alternative writing, compared to the older examples of this name.

Nomen

 

1104_mentuhotep_ii_e4.gif (410 bytes) 

 

var.  1104_mentuhotep_ii_e5.gif (386 bytes)

mnTw-Htp

Mentuhotep

King-lists

 

titulary_6a.gif (290 bytes)

nb Hpt ra

Nebhepetre.

 

titulary_6b.gif (576 bytes)

mnTw-Htpw

Mentuhotep

Alternative names in modern-day literature

 

Montuhotep II, Mentouhotep II, Mentuhetep II, Mentouhetep II, Mentuhotep Nebhepetre, Montuhotep Nebhepetre, Mentouhotep Nebhepetre, Mentuhetep Nebhepetre, Mentouhetep Nebhepetre

- Titulary -

  11th Dynasty   History    
  Antef III   Statues and Reliefs    
  Mentuhotep II   Titulary    
  Mentuhotep III        
             
             


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